Television

WHO MADE THIS MESSAGE?

The processes of filmmaking and that of making a TV show are similar.

It all begins with an idea. The usual makers of TV shows are TV studios.

IDEA AND DEVELOPMENT

The process of filmmaking begins with an idea. The idea is developed into a story suitable for a TV show, and then converted into a script.

The scriptwriter/ director first works on the plot of the  show, and then takes that story to people who might be willing to help him/her produce it.

The script has the visuals and sounds for the film, the characters, a plot, and dialogues.

Pre-production

The next stage is the pre-production stage. It is said to be the most important stage as this is when most of the logistical and creative decisions are taken, as far as circumstances permit. Of course, unlike films, in TV shows there is room for some adjustments later on.

Initial logistical decisions, however, involve choosing locations to shoot at (even if indoors), coordinating with teams on the schedule for the shoot, preparing the initial schedule for the shoot, casting people, and organising all the tools and items required for production.

SEE: DIFFERENT CAMERA SHOTS USED IN FILMS https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ICcE72RwEyc

The budget for the show is also prepared in the preproduction stage. The budget includes the cost for shooting, hiring and paying crew members, getting actors, production equipment, and other miscellaneous expenses such as food.

Production

This is when the actual work for the film begins. All the audio and visual material required for the show is gathered or shot at this stage. The crew heads out with their script and screenplay in hand and begins shooting.

(What is a Screenplay? http://thescriptlab.com/screenwriting-101/screenplay/what-is-ascreenplay#, http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/arts/features/howtowrite/screenplay.shtml)

Apart from shooting for the video component of the film, the team also records the music or background sounds. If there are dialogues or sounds that weren’t clear in the first recording, they are re-recorded.

The script might also be tweaked, based on inputs from the team or availability of resources.

Post-production

It is in this stage when all the audio and video bits recorded are pieced together, to tell the story. This process is called editing. The show that you see is a product of editing. Bad editing can ruin a good story. Editing is done using special software such as Windows Movie Maker, Avid Media Composer, Adobe Premier Pro, Final Cut Pro, Power Director, Corel Visual Studio, and many others.

Close attention is to be paid to how to arrange the video, the background score, the best video or audio editing effects, and also, importantly, on footage that is redundant.

Promotion and broadcast

Once some of the show has been shot, the promotion team sets to work.

Promotional activities include everything from advertising, selling merchandise, to organising meeting with the media, getting the actors to appear in other television programmes, and organising events.

 

Broadcast will be the actual airing of the programme at the set and publicised time.

The thing to note is that the shoot for a TV show may go on for much longer, and because the show is aired in episodes, it may be able to respond to popular sentiment about its content.

WHAT ARE THE CREATIVE TECHNIQUES THAT WERE USED TO GRAB MY ATTENTION?

It isn’t always easy to analyse films or TV shows.

That’s because of the nature of the medium: things usually happen quickly and meaning is conveyed in so many different ways that it can be hard to keep track.

It is always recommended that you watch any film or TV show at least two times before doing any proper analysis.

The first time is when you merely understand the plot and characterizations—an instinctive understanding. The second time, you observe carefully and try to understand why certain things made you feel a certain way.

What gave you the impression that the protagonist is a good guy? What made you believe that the landlord was a crooked man? What led you to believe that the hero and heroine had a happy marriage? Did it always seem to you that the protagonist’s father-in-law ill-treated his poor damaad? Why? [CHANGE]

Now, there are three areas that affect the reception of a film and these are the ones you need to look out for carefully:

1. IMAGE

Moving images. In essence, that’s what a film is. So to make sense of any film, it is important to understand the images that compose it. When looking at images, remember this term: mis-en-scene.

Mis-en-scene refers to all that makes up the scene. This includes the set, props, costumes, actors, blocking (the way in which actors are arranged) and lighting.

What does the use of a particular colour in the background do? What does the relative positioning of the actors signify? Where have certain things been framed? Does that impact the way meaning is created? Also consider things such as camera angles. A low camera angle is often used to make someone appear larger.

This technique is used, for example, when an actor is to be shown in a position of authority.

EXAMPLE FOR LOW ANGLE AND HIGH ANGLE SHOTS https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8V1uE1-wTPs

A high angle shot is used to make a character appear small and insignificant.

Now, consider these three descriptions of the same still shot. EXAMPLE

You could consider these the three steps in reading a photo.

First, understand the import of the action to the plot. Second, observe the visual details. Third, connect the action to the visual details and see how each affects the other.

2. MOVEMENT

There are two kinds of movements in any film.

Continuous movement refers to the movement within the frame: this could be the characters moving or the camera moving.

Discontinuous movement refers to movement between frames. This is done through editing, where two or more frames are joined together or some other movement introduced between them such as dissolve, move, zoom in etc.

Here are some questions you can consider when looking at a film’s movement:

1. What is the film’s pace?

2. Are the characters moving? Are all characters moving? Are any stationary?

3. Are characters stationary but just the camera moving?

4. Are the camera movements smooth? Or jumpy?

5. What effect does all this have?

SOUND

Sound can be a very important in conveying any particular meaning to you.

There are three types of sounds in any film:

1. Dialogues

2. Music/ Songs

3. Sound effects

To understand the impact that sounds has on your experience of a film, try watching a sequence with the sound on. And then turn the sound off and re-watch the entire sequence.

What does that do? Sometimes, lack of dialogues and music itself can be used to convey meaning.

HOW MIGHT OTHERS SEE THIS MESSAGE?

Take a look at this clip, for example. Who do you think this was made for?

Sequence from show such as Hip, Hip, Hurray

DESCRIPTION OF CLIP

Some shows choose to target specific groups of audiences, while still having some appeal for those outside this set target.

WHAT ARE THE VALUES, POINTS OF VIEW, AND LIFESTYLES THAT ARE INCLUDED IN THIS MESSAGE? WHICH ONES ARE OMITTED?

But whatever their aim may be, TV shows and films also affect the way we live.

They influence our culture. How often do we wonder which character from a film or TV show are we like? How do we decide what our weddings should be like? How do we even decide what our spouse should be like?

EXAMPLE: Komolika bindis

WHY WAS THIS MESSAGE CREATED?

So what motivates most  TV show makers?

A very important goal is the goal to make money. But how do they do this?

Since we as viewers barely pay anything for TV content, TV shows have to recover their costs from advertisers. Since advertisers are so important for cost-recovery, for TV shows attracting advertisers is primary.

Audiences are secondary. The higher the number of people watching a show, higher the interests of the advertiser in it. And of course, the viewer has to be one that can afford buying whatever it is that advertisers want to sell.

According to a Business Today report, producing a soap costs around 11 to 12 lakh (It’s not about the money, April 13, 2014, http://businesstoday.intoday.in/story/satyamev-jayate-notfor-profit-show-star-plus-trp/1/204550.html). FACT ON TV INDUSTRY IN INDIA http://www.ibef.org/industry/entertainment-presentation

The entertainment industry is dominated by the television segment with 45 per cent of the market share, which is expected to reach 50 per cent by 2018. Television, print and films together accounted for 86 per cent of the market share in 2013. WE COULD USE THIS.

That is targeting. Targeting only specific kinds of people and choosing to tweak language and images depending on where is it that you place your ad.